Bergen is located on the western coast of Norway at 60º 23′ N – the same as the Shetland Islands north of Scotland. The city is centered on the mainland seaside surrounded by mountains, but includes several islands as well. Established before 1070 and was the capital of Norway from the early 1300s, but given over to Oslo a century later. However, it remained the most populated city until the 1830s, when Oslo surpassed. Current population is 278, 121.
Bergen has an oceanic climate with winter temps at 40 (high) and 32 (low) and summer temps 69 (high) and 56 (low). Definitely rainy, averaging 202 days of rain with annual accumulation of 89 inches. Compare annual sunshine hours of Kansas City of 2810 to Bergen’s 1187.
Our first tour was decidedly the highlight. As per our custom, we try to stop in at the info center first where we found out that in a few hours an English speaking tour was to begin at the Info center from where we boarded a motorcoach and traveled to the Edvard Grieg residence and museum. Jessica knew of Edvard Grieg, because one of his pieces (Solveig’s Song) was her recital selection to earn a vocal scholarship to Central Methodist University, but neither of us knew that he was from Bergen or that he and his wife spent the last 22 years of their lives here. Included in the ticket was a 30 minute piano recital – Wow!
What a lovely city – third largest in Norway and the surrounding area known as the breadbasket of the country since most of the food crops are produced around this area. Not counting coffee of course, though Norway is the second largest consumer of coffee!
We arrived via Kong Harald Hurtigruten ferry boat from Bergen (yeah, these are totally out of order, but just lazy) about 9am, found our Airbnb guest house just a 13 minute walk from the harbour. Got settled in, then headed for the Nidaros Cathedral, The Archbishop’s Palace Museum, The Crown Regalia, and The Armoury. We managed to arrive at such time to watch a filming of an upcoming local show, view the Crown Regalia, then attend the 25 minute English speaking tour of the Cathedral at noon, then enjoy a 25 minute organ recital played on the 1739 Wagner organ at 1pm, climbed the tower at 1:30 tour, then off for the 2pm tour of the Archbishop’s Palace. Worked out very well. We have no inside photos since they are not allowed.
After a short rest, we were ready for the evening adventure. We walked along the very popular harbour which was abuzz with bar hoppers and masses of people enjoying great food in the many restaurants. We continued on, however, to Kristiansten Fortress which was only 1.8 kilometers from our apartment. Many of the area attractions are close in to within walking distance of the harbour.
We certainly could have used at least one more day here in Trondheim. Especially with mid August being shoulder season and some of the attractions open late and/or close early. There were a couple attractions that would require grabbing the bus and going out of town that i would have liked to have included.
We’ve been incredibly fortunate to have clear skies and warm temperatures here. The high yesterday was 62 and today is forecasted 72! Alas, we are headed for the train station about 9a to catch our flight back to Oslo for another short visit.
Kristiansten Fortress – An absolute must visit – we went in the evening and stay until past sunset, but photos taken in the morning from here would yield stunning vistas of the town and harbour. History: It was built after the city fire of Trondheimin 1681 to protect the city against attack from the east. Construction was finished in 1685. It fulfilled its purpose in 1718 when Swedish forces laid siege against Trondheim. The fortress was decommissioned in 1816 by king Charles XIV John.
Hey guys! Once again, it’s Nathan, guest writing here as I’m too lazy to make my own blog. Today we have an effect essay I wrote analyzing the effect of the Shetland Bus on the Norwegian Campaign in WWII (roll credits). With just one more paper to write and one sitting in the queue, we have nearly reached the end of my planned contributions to the blog, but never fear, I plan to continue writing throughout the summer, though less frequently. As always, enjoy, and please feel free to leave your thoughts and comments below. Thanks!
One of the ways in which Operation Shetland Bus affected the campaign was by helping fugitives running from German arrest escape to safety in Great Britain. Many Norwegians had already fled for Great Britain by the time their government capitulated, and as author Brenda Ralph Lewis notes, “These refugee Norwegians proved an ideal source of recruiting for the arduous undertakings Operation Shetland Bus was going to involve” (Lewis 20). The ships of Operation Shetland Bus would often sail at night in the winter, braving choppy seas to deliver their precious cargoes, Norwegian citizens fleeing the Gestapo, and the experience of these Norwegian fishermen proved invaluable in navigating the dangerous waters. Despite tremendous odds and the ever-present danger of being intercepted by German warships, over the course of the war more than 350 refugees would be rescued and transplanted in Shetland, many of whom would find a way to contribute back to the war effort.
Operation Shetland Bus also affected the campaign by aiding Allied espionage in the region, establishing radio transmitters, and landing agents in Norway. In fact, on August 30, 1941, the operation’s first mission was completed by the Aksel, a fishing ship recruited for the service, when they successfully landed an agent carrying information for the local resistance corps in Bergen, Norway (Lewis 20). These agents relayed information which allowed for large-scale coordination of resistance activities throughout Norway, and by ferrying these agents back and forth across the stormy North Sea, Operation Shetland Bus served as a vital link between the resistance forces and their exiled monarchy. Operation Shetland Bus would eventually deliver 60 radio transmitters and nearly 200 agents who would establish a network that sent a continuous flow of information about German movements back to Great Britain.
The most obvious effect Operation Shetland Bus had was the way in which the munitions they delivered were used. According to Lewis, by the end of the war, almost 400 tons of munitions had been landed, much of which was carried in the holds of the so-called “buses”(fishing ships requisitioned by the operation for their ability to blend in with common fishermen) which could carry as much as 10 tons of explosives at a time (Lewis 20). With these munitions, resistance forces were able to raid strategic targets and sabotage German efforts, such as the strike on the heavy water plant at Vemork, in which Norwegian commandos were able to destroy both the facility and the entire stockpile of heavy water, which is used in the creation of atomic weapons. Although there were no major battles during the conflict, Allied and Norwegian commandos and saboteurs also raided German installations along the vast Norwegian coastline and destroyed German ships and supplies throughout the war.
Perhaps, however, the most important effect of Operation Shetland Bus was the hope it inspired in the Norwegian citizens. It was a beacon for partisans and patriots, giving them a cause to which they could rally, and rally they did. From circulating an underground newspaper filled with transcribed Allied radio broadcasts to wearing paper clips to show that they were bound together, the entire Norwegian people flocked to the cause of their nation’s freedom and that of their exiled government, and in the process, they denied the legitimacy of the puppet government established by Vidkun Quisling. The Germans issued severe reprisals for the action of the resistance, but the limited number of Norwegian collaborators hampered these efforts to break the spirit of the Norwegian citizenry.
Operation Shetland Bus ran until May of 1945 and its ships sailed 90,000 miles over the course of their service (Lewis 20). Despite brutal odds, Norwegian sailors and Shetland civilians continued to contribute to the war and eventually, on June 7, 1945, King Haakon VII of Norway landed in Oslo, five years to the day since the German invasion forced him from his throne. Thanks to the efforts of the brave individuals involved with Operation Shetland Bus, the Norwegian resistance was never repressed, and their rightful government never deposed.
. “Operation Shetland Bus ferried spies, supplies and refugees to and from Norway under the Germans’ noses.” World War II Jul. 99: 20. Print.
Blog note: We learnt about the Shetland Bus whilst visiting the Scalloway Museum in Scalloway, Shetland Islands, Scotland. We highly recommend this first rate museum!
Help from America: In the autumn of 1943 the Shetland bus operation received a major boost in the form of the arrival of three small American ‘sub-chasers’ (submarine chasers). They were named the HESSA, HITRA and VIGRA and were under the command of Petter Saelen, Ingvald Eidsheim and Leif Larsen. Each boat had a crew of 26 men, of whom three were officers. They were fast and efficient.